In the BDI-2 total scores ranging from indicates absence of depression; indicates mild depression; indicates moderate depression while scores ranging from indicates severe depression. The BDI-2 has been used for studies in Nigeria . Means, standard deviations, percentages and the Student t-test were performed to find relationships between variables. The level of significance chosen for this study was p? Their years of study ranged as follows: With regards to loneliness, depression and self esteem, Equally Furthermore, Table 3: Loneliness, self esteem, depression and year of study.
The result of this study had revealed varying degrees of loneliness, depression and self esteem among the respondents. This pattern of findings had previously been documented in various studies. In their own contribution , explored the relationship between hypochondriasis, loneliness, and social functioning, and posited that both hypochondriasis and poor coping skills were highly correlated with loneliness.
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Equally, , subdivided depression into introjective self-critical and anaclitic dependency components and posited that both subtypes of depression were highly correlated with loneliness. They concluded that, while the introjective subtype accounted for more of the variance in the loneliness scores, the anaclitic subtype was also significantly related to loneliness.
The varying degrees of loneliness, self esteem and depression noticed among the subjects in this study corroborates these earlier findings. The findings of this study equally relate to that of Fur et al. Result further revealed significant association between gender and depression. Previous studies had equally reported gender differences in depression . Furthermore, mood disorders in general had been reported to be much more common in females than males, with the pattern of difference between the sexes being consistent across different cultures .
This might be as a result of the inability of some of the students to form attachments with their fellow students coupled, may be, with the unfamiliar nature of the school environment, especially for those in the lower years of study, as well as being far away from home. Furthermore, their inability to form new attachments and relationships with their new colleagues can equally make them feel lonely and depressed. In this regard Cacioppo et al.
Equally John et al. Whereas Peplau et al. Result of the study further revealed significant associations between loneliness, depression, self esteem and age group. This may be as a result of the social hierarchy, by way of seniority, that existed among students in Nigerian universities. Junior students may have some feelings of inferiority interacting with senior ones, since most of them are still passing through the process of identity development, which Lewinsohn et al.
The level of loneliness, self esteem and depression noticed among the Nigerian university students studied is high. Effort should be made by government to identify these students and introduce regular psychological services to help mitigate these problems, so that it will not affect their academic pursuit. Fortune Journals follows a rigorous peer-review together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure high quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication.
Fortune Journals uses best softwares for identifying plagiarism and it never accept articles with higher plagiarism. Articles published under Fortune Journals will be Open-Access articles which are distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution License version 4. Fortune Journals follows single blind peer-review process, manuscript submitted by an Author is assigned to a particular Editor. Toggle navigation. Introduction Loneliness is the feeling of distress that arises when an individual perceives his or her social relationships as being less satisfying than what is desired or situations where the intimacy an individual wishes for has not been realized [1, 2].
Method 2. Table 2: Loneliness, self esteem and depression among gender.
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Discussion The result of this study had revealed varying degrees of loneliness, depression and self esteem among the respondents. Acknowledgement The authors thank all the respondents who gave their consent to participate in this study. Conflict of Interest The authors have no conflict of interest in this research work. Perspective on loneliness. John Wiley and sons : De Jong- Gierveld J. Developing and testing a model of loneliness.
Journal of personality and social psychology 53 : Loneliness and health. Psychosomatic Medicine 64 : Hewitt JP.
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Oxford handbook of positive psychology. Oxford university press : Saha GC, Halder S, et al.
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Relationship of depression with selfesteem and satisfaction with life. International journal of behavioral and movement sciences 2 Rabkin JG, Charles E, et al. American journal of psychiatry : School refusal and psychiatric disorders: A community study. Rowe R. Links between antisocial behavior and depressed mood: The role of life events and attributional style. Journal of Abnormal clinical psychology 34 : Goodman, E.
Socio-economic status, depressive symptoms and adolescents substance use. The Sacred Harp 82a. Date : The Sacred Harp Display Title : Shout, O glory!
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