Even this plan failed and all involved were arrested, all except Threlfall In case of a German occupation, this should operate as the backbone of a decentralized resistance network. But through mapping their activities, A. In his mysterious briefcase the door-kicking agents from A. The next day, totally 23 persons were simultaneously arrested in eight cities around Sweden and in the subsequent investigation a complex pattern emerged.
For example, he besides the briefcase also had given to K. The 1 owl 2 a the 4 pussy 5 cat 6 went 7 to 8 sea 9 in 10 a 11 beautiful 12 sea 13 green 14 boat 15 with 16 lots 17 of 18 honey 19 and 20 plenty 21 of 22 money 23 wrapped 24 up 25 in 26 He neither knew how to use this nor the content of the briefcase.
His connection with Tennant and the British Legation was strictly about his trip to England and a labor union event. He admitted holding but denied any involvement in espionage or conspiracies. The actual extent of this espionage network is unclear.
How many radio transmitters Tennant had the opportunity to hand out and to whom , or how many operators that were instructed and prepared in K. However, it became clear that the activities foremost were ran by syndicalists and political refugees — but notably not any communists. As David Stafford points out, anti-communism became an increasingly important part of S. First and foremost this anti-communism had more to do with the upcoming Cold War, and the competition between the intelligence services of U. Therefore, it was probably not a coincidence that Tennant, despite that communists were the most active and eager anti-fascists and anti-Germans, primarily tied syndicalists to himself and engaged them in his stay-behind network.
Their feature as very reliable both anti-fascists and anti-communists, probably suited Tennant, S. From their perspective, reliable Swedes were rare. But he was anyway pleased and confident in his and S. Short before the farewell, he posed smiling together with his wife in Swedish newspapers, taking goodbye and being honored as the best and most popular foreign diplomat in Sweden ever On the other hand, he was a cunning chameleon who very likely was involved in shady and illegal activities without getting burned. The Swedish counter-espionage was on their side fully occupied with him and his colleagues.
In this, they had to develop and test new methods when it came to surveillance, infiltration, phone interception and mail control. The alleged importance of these masculine behavioral dimensions of espionage is also emphasized in the contemporary instructions for S. But we still know very little about this. In Sweden, the detailed traces of S.
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For, in the aftermath there were no general or specific interests at all to investigate this. Tennant was actually one of the moral and energetic heroes of the war and the reconciliation in Sweden was about other circumstances.
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Thus, something inexplicable that according to the official historical narrative of Sweden during World War II only just happened. But nothing is inexplicable and nothing just happens. Peter Tennant knew this certainly well when he gave the mysterious briefcase to K.
What it contained, we however know now. Spies and spying in the twentieth century , London, Pimlico, British and German intelligence operations and personalities which changed the course of the Second World War , London, Hodder and Stoughton, , pp. Norska och danska trupper i Sverige , Stockholm, Forum, , pp. En bok om Amelie Posse , Stockholm, Carlsson, About the fundamentals and organization of S. The scientific secrets , Stroud, The History Press, , pp.
Due to ethical considerations, I do anonymize his identity here. Expressen , 6 February His research lies in the intersection between modern political history, history of ideas, labor history, military history and gender history, and deals primarily with various forms of political radicalism and militarism and various aspects of ideology of work in society. Currently, his research focus on fascism and anti-fascism, and on structures of power in working life.
He is also engaged in bunker archaeological research on post-militarian places around Sweden. This was replaced by a wafer-thin leaden container in which a message was sealed. It would sink in water, and melt in fire, and could be used by agents on land or water. It had one drawback—lead poisoning if it was swallowed.
It was replaced by a silver, bullet-shaped container that could be unscrewed to hold a message and which would not poison a courier who might be forced to swallow it. On May 29, , the Continental Congress received the first of many intelligence estimates prepared in response to questions it posed to military commanders. The report estimated the size of the enemy force to be encountered in an attack on New York, the number of Continental troops needed to meet it, and the kind of force needed to defend the other New England colonies.
But, if you can by any means obtain a list of the regiments left upon the island, we can compute the number of men within a few hundreds, over or under. George Washington was a skilled manager of intelligence. He utilized agents behind enemy lines, recruited both Tory and Patriot sources, interrogated travelers for intelligence information, and launched scores of agents on both intelligence and counterintelligence missions.
He was adept at deception operations and tradecraft and was a skilled propagandist. He also practiced sound operational security.
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He emphasized his desire for receiving written, rather than verbal, reports. He demanded repeatedly that intelligence reports be expedited, reminding his officers of those bits of intelligence he had received which had become valueless because of delay in getting them to him. He also recognized the need for developing many different sources so that their reports could be cross-checked, and so that the compromise of one source would not cut off the flow of intelligence from an important area. Washington retained full and final authority over Continental Army intelligence activities, but he delegated significant field responsibility to trusted officers.
Although he regularly urged all his officers to be more active in collecting intelligence, Washington relied chiefly on his aides and specially designated officers to assist him in conducting intelligence operations. Tallmadge combined reconnaissance with clandestine visits into British territory to recruit agents, and he attained distinction for his conduct of the Culper Ring operating out of New York. Knowlton, who had served in a similar unit during the French and Indian War, led men and 20 officers—all hand-picked volunteers—on a variety of secret missions that were too dangerous for regular troops to conduct.
The first Patriot intelligence network on record was a secret group in Boston known as the Mechanics, which meant skilled workers. The group, also known as the Liberty Boys, apparently grew out of the old Sons of Liberty organization that had successfully opposed the Stamp Act. The Mechanics organized resistance to British authority and gathered intelligence. In addition, the Mechanics sabotaged and stole British military equipment in Boston.
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Their security practices, however, were amateurish. They met in the same place regularly the Green Dragon Tavern , and one of their leaders Dr. Benjamin Church was a British agent. Through their intelligence sources, the Mechanics were able to see through the cover story the British had devised to mask their march on Lexington and Concord.
Joseph Warren, chairman of the Committee of Safety, charged Revere with the task of warning Samuel Adams and John Hancock at Lexington, Massachusetts, that they were the probable targets of the enemy operation. Revere arranged for the warning lanterns to be hung in Old North Church to alert patriot forces at Charlestown, and then set off on his famous ride. He completed his primary mission of notifying Adams and Hancock.
Then Revere, along with Dr. Samuel Prescott and William Dawes, rode on to alert Concord, only to be apprehended by the British en route. Dawes got away, and Dr.
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